Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors. The IETF started out as an activity supported byRead More

Protocol Stack

The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family. The terms are often used interchangeably; strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of the Communications protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them. Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a singleRead More

Windows Sockets API

In computing, the Windows Sockets API (WSA), later shortened to Winsock, is a technical specification that defines how Windowsnetworksoftware should access network services, especially TCP/IP. It defines a standard interface between a Windows TCP/IP client application (such as an FTP client or a web browser) and the underlying TCP/IP protocol stack. The nomenclature is based on the Berkeley socketsAPI model used in BSD for communications between programs. Early Microsoft operating systems, bothRead More

Terminal Emulator

A terminal emulator, terminal application, or term, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. Though typically synonymous with a shell or text terminal, the term terminal covers all remote terminals, including graphical interfaces. A terminal emulator inside a graphical user interface is often called a terminal window.A terminal window allows the user access to a text terminal and all its applications such as command-line interfaces (CLI) and textRead More


A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines). A program which handles the interface is called a command language interpreter or shell (computing).The CLI was the primary means of interaction withRead More


OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing. It is the successor to the VMS Operating System (VAX-11/VMS, VAX/VMS), that was produced by Digital Equipment Corporation, and first released in 1977 for its series of VAX-11 minicomputers. The 11/780 was introduced at DEC’s Oct. 25, 1977 annual shareholder’s meeting. In the 1990s, it was used for the successorRead More

Virtual Memory

In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory managementtechnique that provides an “idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine”[1] which “creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory.”[2]The computer’s operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory. Main storage, asRead More

ANSI Escape Sequences

ANSI escape sequences are a standard for in-band signaling to control the cursor location, color, and other options on video text terminals. Certain sequences of bytes, most starting with Esc and ‘[‘, are embedded into the text, which the terminal looks for and interprets as commands, not as character codes.ANSI sequences were introduced in the 1970s to replace vendor-specific sequences and became widespreadRead More

Cisco ASA

Cisco ASA has become one of the most widely used firewall/VPN solutions for small to medium businesses. Early reviews indicated the Cisco GUI tools for managing the device were lacking, but that the device was otherwise impressive.A security flaw in Clientless Secure Sockets Layer Virtual Private Networking was rectified in 2015. A security flaw in a WebVPNRead More


A host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) is an intrusion detection system that is capable of monitoring and analyzing the internals of a computing system as well as the network packets on its network interfaces, similar to the way a network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) operates. This was the first type of intrusion detection software toRead More